Science Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 110-114
This article was selected by Science as one of the top ten breakthroughs of the 2016. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/12/ai-protein-folding-our-breakthrough-runners

Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs

Christopher Krupenye*, Fumihiro Kano*, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
*shared first-authors, co-correspondence

Abstract

Humans operate with a “theory of mind” with which they are able to understand that others’ actions are driven not by reality but by beliefs about reality, even when those beliefs are false. Although great apes share with humans many social-cognitive skills, they have repeatedly failed experimental tests of such false-belief understanding. We use an anticipatory looking test (originally developed for human infants) to show that three species of great apes reliably look in anticipation of an agent acting on a location where he falsely believes an object to be, even though the apes themselves know that the object is no longer there. Our results suggest that great apes also operate, at least on an implicit level, with an understanding of false beliefs.

Krupenye C, Kano F, Hirata S, Call J, Tomasello M (2016) Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs Science Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 110-114 , doi: 10.1126/science.aaf8110