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Hayashi M, Sakuraba Y, Watanabe S, Kaneko A, Matsuzawa T (2013) Behavioral recovery from tetraparesis in a captive chimpanzee Primates, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 237-243

Misato Hayashi, Yoko Sakuraba, Shohei Watanabe, Akihisa Kaneko, Tetsuro Matsuzawa

Behavioral recovery from tetraparesis in a captive chimpanzee

Primates, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 237-243, doi: 10.1007/s10329-013-0358-2


本研究は京都大学霊長類研究所、文部科学省科学研究費(No.20002001、No.24000001代表:松沢哲郎、No.19700245、No.23700313代表:林美里)、およびベネッセコーポレーション寄附金の補助を受けておこなわれました。今回の発表にあたって、多くの方にレオの世話、ご指導、情報提供をしていただきました。京都大学霊長類研究所の友永雅己先生、田中正之先生、伊村知子先生、足立幾磨先生、山本真也先生、熊崎清則様、大橋岳様、服部裕子様、落合知美様、松野響様、打越万喜子様、高島友子様、井上紗奈様、Laura Martinez様、佐藤義明様、兼子峰明様、狩野文浩様、Christopher Martin様、野上悦子様、堀鈴香様、伊藤康世様、山梨裕美様、廣澤麻里様、中島麻衣様、村松明穂様、Lira Yu様、植田想様、平井啓久先生、岡本宗裕先生、松林清明先生、景山節先生、鈴木樹理先生、宮部貴子先生、渡邉朗野様、西脇弘樹様、前田典彦様、森本真弓様、廣川類様、佐々木花子様、古橋保志様、須田直子様、京都大学医学研究科の大畑光司先生、川村義肢株式会社の平見啓介先生、大阪労災病院の田上光男先生に厚く御礼申し上げます。また、京都大学野生動物研究センターの中村美穂先生にはリハビリの映像をご提供いただき、Dora Biro様に英語校閲をしていただきました。本研究は霊長類研究所「サル類の飼育管理及び使用に関する指針(第3版)」および関連法規に準拠しておこなわれました。


An adult male chimpanzee living in a captive social group at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University developed acute tetraparesis. He was paralyzed and received intensive care and veterinary treatment as previously reported in Miyabe-Nishiwaki et al. (J Med Primatol 39:336–346, 2010). The behavioral recovery of the chimpanzee was longitudinally monitored using an index of upright posture between 0 and 41 months after the onset of tetraparesis. Four phases were identified during the course of behavioral recovery. During Phase 0 (0–13months), the chimpanzee remained lying on his back during the absence of human caretakers. An increase in upright posture occurred in Phase I (14–17 months), then remained at a stable level of around 50–70 % in Phase II (18–29 months). During Phases I and II, the subject’s small treatment cage represented a spatial limitation. Thus, behavioral recovery was mainly mediated by arm muscle strengthening caused by raising the body trunk with the aid of materials attached to the cage walls as environmental enrichment. When the chimpanzee was moved to a larger rehabilitation room in Phase III (30–41 months), the percentage of upright posture constantly exceeded 80 %, except in the 40th month when he injured his ankle and was inactive for several days. The enlargement of the living space had a positive effect on behavioral recovery by increasing the types of locomotion exhibited by the subject, including the use of legs during walking. Rehabilitation works were applied in face-to-face situations which enabled the use of rehabilitation methods used in humans. The process of behavioral recovery reported in this study provides a basic data set for planning future rehabilitation programs and for comparisons with further cases of physical disability in non-human primates.


Chimpanzee, Tetraparesis, Disability, Rehabilitation, Environmental enrichment

Figures from the article

Figure 4.Still image of face-to-face interaction between Reo and human caretakers during rehabilitation

Supplemental video
Face-to-face interaction between Reo, a keeper (SW, right) and a veterinarian (AK,left). While the keeper is grooming the chimpanzee’s face the veterinarian is applying extension rehabilitation to his leg. They also encourage Reo to extend his leg by gestural and verbal instructions