2008年のニュース


友永雅己: ニホンザルの縮尺模型に対する反応

投稿日: 2009-02-19

友永雅己が共著論文を出版しました。

Murai, C., & Tomonaga, M. (2009). Fear responses of Japanese macaques to scale models. Journal of Ethology, 27, 1-10. (DOI:10.1007/s10164-007-0072-x)

This study investigated fear responses of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) to scale models. Fear responses of participants were assessed using rating scores assigned by judges. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with scale models of objects in furniture, vehicle, and mammal categories. Overall, the participants expressed stronger fear responses to mammal objects as compared to the other two kinds. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with scale models of furniture, new mammals, and animals composed of insects, birds, fish, and reptiles. As a whole, the participants showed stronger fear responses to the new mammal and animal objects than to furniture objects. Fear responses to mammal and animal objects were comparable. These results suggest that Japanese monkeys show stronger fear responses to objects possessing perceptual properties of animals, as opposed to objects that do not possess such properties.

足立幾磨、松沢哲郎: ニホンザル幼児におけるクロスモーダル表象を形成する能力の柔軟性

投稿日: 2009-02-12

足立幾磨、松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Adachi, I., Kuwahata, H., Fujita, K., Tomonaga, M., & Matsuzawa, T. (2008). Plasticity of ability to form cross-modal representations in infant Japanese macaques. Developmental Science. (DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00780.x)

In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to conspecifics, it was an open question whether their lack of cross-modal representation of humans simply reflected their lower levels of exposure to humans or was caused by some innate restrictions on the ability. To answer the question, we used the same procedure but tested infant Japanese macaques with more extensive experience of humans in daily life. Briefly, we presented monkeys with a photograph of either a monkey or a human face on an LCD monitor after playing a vocalization of one of these two species. The subjects looked at the monitor longer when a voice and a face were mismatched than when they were matched, irrespective of whether the preceding vocalization was a monkey's or a human's. This suggests that once monkeys have extensive experience with humans, they will form a cross-modal representation of humans as well as of conspecifics.

京都大学霊長類研究所 2008年度共同利用研究会 第4回比較社会認知シンポジウム

投稿日: 2008-12-18

京都大学霊長類研究所 2008年度共同利用研究会 第4回比較社会認知シンポジウム

日時: 2008年12月19日 (金) - 20 (土)

場所: 京都大学霊長類研究所大会議室

シンポジウムの詳細はこちらです。

友永雅己: コミュニケーションと社会: チンパンジーの認知発達からみた社会的相互交渉の進化

投稿日: 2008-12-18

友永雅己が本の章を執筆しました。

友永雅己. (2008). コミュニケーションと社会: チンパンジーの認知発達からみた社会的相互交渉の進化. In 甘利俊一 (Supervisor), & 入來篤史 (Ed.), シリーズ脳科学: Vol. 3. 言語と思考を生む脳 (pp. 163-191). 東京大学出版会. (ISBN 978-4-13-064303-0) (出版社による紹介)

服部裕子: 量よりも質: オマキザルによる逆転報酬随伴性の迅速な学習

投稿日: 2008-12-18

服部裕子が共著論文を出版しました。

Anderson, J. R., Hattori, Y., & Fujita, K. (2008). Quality before quantity: Rapid learning of reverse-reward contingency by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 445-448. (DOI:10.1037/a0012624) (PsycNET)

Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a reverse-reward task involving different quantities of the same food, or an identical quantity of different foods. All monkeys tested first on the qualitative version spontaneously mastered the task, whereas only one of four spontaneously mastered the quantitative version. No monkey reached criterion when the tasks were switched, although almost all did so following remedial procedures after the study. The results suggest that (a) qualitative reverse-reward is easier than quantitative versions of the problem, (b) quality and quantity dimensions are processed differently in food-related tasks, and (c) capuchin monkeys can show rapid and spontaneous learning of reverse-reward contingencies.

Keywords: self-control, food preference, inhibitory control, choice

松沢哲郎: ボッソウの野生チンパンジーの4つの道具使用にまたがってみられる利き手

投稿日: 2008-12-18

松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Humle, T., & Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Laterality in hand use across four tool-use behaviors among the wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 40-48. (DOI:10.1002/ajp.20616)

Population-level right handedness is a human universal, whose evolutionary origins are the source of considerable empirical and theoretical debate. Although our closest neighbor, the chimpanzee, shows some evidence for population-level handedness in captivity, there is little evidence from the wild. Tool-use measures of hand use in chimpanzees have yielded a great deal of variation in directionality and strength in hand preference, which still remains largely unexplored and unexplained. Data on five measures of hand use across four tool-use skills - ant-dipping, algae-scooping, pestle-pounding and nut-cracking - among the wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, are presented here. This study aims to explore age- and sex-class effects, as well as the influence of task motor, cognitive and haptic demands, on the strength and directionality of hand preference within and across all five measures of hand use. Although there was no age- or sex-class effect on the directionality of hand preference, immature 10 years old tended to be less lateralized than adults, especially adult females. Nut-cracking, the most cognitively complex of the four behaviors and the only one requiring complementary coordination of both hands, yielded the greatest strength in hand use with all adults expressing exclusive use of one hand over the other, without overall significant directional preference. The least lateralized behavior was pestle-pounding, which required bimanual coordination, but also imposed constraints owing to fatigue. It emerged that only the most hazardous tool use, i.e. ant-dipping, and the sole haptic task, i.e. the extraction by hand of crushed oil-palm heart, were laterally biased and both to the right. Shared motor or grip patterns in tool-use skills failed to reveal any specialization in hand use at the individual level. Finally, Bossou chimpanzees demonstrated a tendency for a population-level right-hand use.

Key words: chimpanzee; hand use; tool use; laterality; Bossou

友永雅己: 視覚マスキング法で評価されたチンパンジーとヒトの視覚の時間的特徴

投稿日: 2008-12-18

友永雅己が共著論文を出版しました。

Matsuno, T., & Tomonaga, M. (2008). Temporal characteristics of visibility in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens) assessed by a visual-masking paradigm. Perception, 37, 1258-1268. (DOI:10.1068/p5859)

We used the visual-masking paradigm to compare temporal characteristics of chimpanzee vision with those of humans. Two types of masking experiments were conducted. One type involved masking by noise, in which the visibility of the geometric pattern target was tested with a spatially overlapping noise as the mask stimulus. The other type involved paracontrast and metacontrast masking, in which the mask stimuli flanked but did not spatially overlap the target stimuli. Temporal characteristics regarding the visibility of target stimuli, displayed as functions of temporal asynchrony between target and mask stimuli, differed with the mask type in chimpanzees as in humans. Peak deterioration in visibility occurred at the point of minimum temporal asynchrony both in forward and backward masking by noise, but was not at 0 ms temporal asynchrony when the target and mask stimuli did not spatially overlap. These results suggest that chimpanzees and humans share the underlying mechanisms in two kinds of temporal inhibition caused by spatially overlapping and non-overlapping mask stimuli.

松沢哲郎: 緑の回廊計画: ギニアのボッソウにおける長期研究および保全

投稿日: 2008-12-18

松沢哲郎が本の章を執筆しました。

Matsuzawa, T. (2008). The green corridor project: Long-term research and conservation in Bossou, Guinea. In R. Wrangham, & E. Ross (Eds.), Science and conservation in African forests: The benefits of long-term research (pp. 201-212). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 978-0-521-89601-6) (出版社による紹介)

ヘンリケ・モル博士講演会

投稿日: 2008-09-06

ヘンリケ・モル博士講演会

演者: ヘンリケ・モル博士 Dr. Henrike Moll, Ph.D. (ワシントン大学)

演題: The development of perspective-taking in young children

日時: 2008年9月22日 (月) 13:00-14:30

場所: 京都大学百周年時計台記念館 会議室IV (京都府京都市)

参加無料、予約不要

主催: 京都大学グローバルCOE 「心が活きる教育のための国際的拠点」

ヘンリケ・モル博士の講演会を上のとおり開催いたします。みなさまのご来聴をお待ちしております。発表は英語でおこなわれます。要旨は下のとおりです。

Humans have the unique ability to take and imagine others' perspectives. They learn by around 4 years of age, that an object or event can be seen or construed in different ways. In my talk I will address the origin and early development of this understanding. First, I will present studies investigating infants' understanding about what others are and are not familiar with from past experience -- a precursor to an appreciation of perspectives. The results of these studies show that infants come to understand familiarity and ignorance in others best in situations of joint engagement. Second, I will report new studies on visual perspective-taking in 3-year-olds using a technique involving color filters. The results suggest that by 36 months of age, children readily acknowledge that another person sees an object differently than they themselves do. This ability, commonly known as level 2 visual perspective-taking, thus emerges prior to other theory of mind abilities, such as false belief reasoning. This surprising finding will be discussed with an emphasis that there might be a third level of visual perspective-taking which develops in synchrony with false belief and related forms of reasoning.

比較認知発達神経科学の挑戦

投稿日: 2008-09-06

比較認知発達神経科学の挑戦

日時: 2008年9月17日 (水) 13:00-17:30

場所: 京都大学芝蘭会館別館 2階 (京都府京都市)

参加無料、予約不要

主催: 京都大学グローバルCOE 「心が活きる教育のための国際的拠点」

国際ワークショップ 「比較認知発達神経科学の挑戦」 を上のとおり開催いたします。みなさまのご来聴をお待ちしております。発表は英語でおこなわれます。プログラムとポスターは下のアイコンからダウンロードできます。

この国際ワークショップの案内は、京都大学グローバルCOE 「心が活きる教育のための国際的拠点」 のウェブサイト内のページでも見ることができます。

森の心、海の心: チンパンジーとイルカの比較認知科学

投稿日: 2008-09-06

森の心、海の心: チンパンジーとイルカの比較認知科学

日時: 2008年9月12日 (金) 10:00-17:30

場所: 名古屋港水族館 北館レクチャールーム (愛知県名古屋市)

参加無料、予約不要 (水族館への入館料が別途必要)

主催: 京都大学霊長類研究所、京都大学野生動物研究センター

国際ワークショップ 「森の心、海の心: チンパンジーとイルカの比較認知科学」 を上のとおり開催いたします。みなさまのご来聴をお待ちしております。発表は英語でおこなわれます。プログラムは下のアイコンからダウンロードできます。

この国際ワークショップの案内は、京都大学グローバルCOE 「心が活きる教育のための国際的拠点」 のウェブサイト内のページ京都大学グローバルCOE 「生物の多様性と進化研究のための拠点形成」 のウェブサイト内のページでも見ることができます。