2009年のニュース


第5回犬山国際比較社会認知シンポジウム

投稿日: 2009-12-17

京都大学霊長類研究所2009年度共同利用研究会

第5回犬山国際比較社会認知シンポジウム

日時: 2009年12月19日 (土) 13:00-18:15、12月20日 (日) 9:00-16:10

場所: 京都大学霊長類研究所大会議室 (愛知県犬山市)

これまで4回にわたって、社会的認知の比較研究とその関連領域に関する共同利用研究会を開催してきました。はじめの3回は個別の大きなテーマを設定しての研究会でしたが、昨年度はより多くの方々による幅広い研究成果を発表していただき、議論を行うという形式をとりました。関連する領域とはいえ手法も対象も異なる研究者が一堂に会して議論と交流を深める本研究会は着実に学界にも認識される存在として成長しつつあります。そこで、今回も第5回という形で特に限定的なトピックを設定することなく、比較社会認知研究および関連する多様な研究領域から幅広く講演者を募り研究会を開催することとなりました。なお、今回は海外からも5名の研究者にご参加いただくことになり、第1回以来の英語による国際シンポジウムとなります。

また、前回同様おこなったポスターセッションも好評だったため、今回も実施いたします。ご希望の方はふるってご参加ください (募集は終了しました。たくさんのご応募ありがとうございました)。

プログラムは下のアイコンからダウンロードできます (2009-12-18更新)。

講演予定者:

Christoph D. Dahl (マックスプランク生物サイバネティクス研究所)

Pier Francesco Ferrari (パルマ大学)

藤井直敬 (理研BSI)

Jane Kiley Hamlin (イェール大学)

板垣俊 (東京大学)

兼子峰明 (京都大学霊長類研究所)

狩野文浩 (京都大学霊長類研究所)

小林春美 (東京電機大学)

倉岡康治 (京都大学霊長類研究所)

楠本ひろみ (九州大学)

森口佑介 (上越教育大学)

森本陽 (京都大学)

直井望 (京都大学)

大嶋百合子 (マギル大学)

Jennifer J. Pokorny (エモリー大学)

Hyun-joo Song (延世大学)

時本楠緒子 (理研BSI)

山本真也 (東京大学/林原類人猿研究センター)

世話人 (京都大学): 友永雅己、林美里、足立幾磨、松井智子 (霊長類研究所)、板倉昭二 (文学研究科)、田中正之 (野生動物研究センター)、明和政子 (教育学研究科)

学外協力者: 開一夫 (東京大学)、杉浦元亮 (東北大学)、佐藤徳 (富山大学)

共催: 京都大学グローバルCOEプログラム「心が活きるための国際的拠点

問合せ先: 友永雅己 (image of the email address)

京都大学霊長類研究所編: 新しい霊長類学

投稿日: 2009-10-01

京都大学霊長類研究所が講談社ブルーバックスから『新しい霊長類学』を上梓しました。思考言語分野のスタッフも執筆しています。

京都大学霊長類研究所 (編). (2009). 新しい霊長類学: 人を深く知るための100問100答. ブルーバックス, 1651. 講談社. (ISBN 978-4-06-257651-2) (出版社による紹介)

こちらで思考言語分野のスタッフのかかわった本を紹介しています。

友永雅己、伊村知子: 顔はチンパンジーの視空間注意を捕捉する

投稿日: 2009-07-23

友永雅己、伊村知子が共著論文を出版しました。

Tomonaga, M., & Imura, T. (2009). Faces capture the visuospatial attention of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence from a cueing experiment. Frontiers in Zoology, 6, 14. (DOI:10.1186/1742-9994-6-14)

顔はチンパンジーの視空間注意を捕捉する: 先行手がかり課題による検証

顔は社会的に重要な刺激であり、ヒトでは視空間的注意を容易に捕捉することが知られている。チンパンジーにとっても顔は社会生活を送る上で重要な刺激であるが、顔に関連する注意のメカニズムについては不明な点が多い。そこで、本研究では若いチンパンジー3個体に単純な反応時間課題の実験に参加してもらい、顔や非顔刺激を含む先行手がかりがいかにチンパンジーの視空間注意を補足するかを検討した。その結果、標的刺激が出現する位置にチンパンジーの顔が先行して提示された場合、逆の場合に比べて反応時間が有意に速くなるという手がかり効果が認められた。このような効果はバナナの写真を先行手がかりとした場合には認められなかった。さらに、この効果はヒトの顔に対しても生じたのに対し、倒立提示されたチンパンジーの顔では認められなかった。このことは、今回の先行手がかりによる注意の捕捉効果は、チンパンジーが顔刺激を「顔」として処理した結果生じている可能性を示唆している。

Background

Faces, as socially relevant stimuli, readily capture human visuospatial attention. Although faces also play important roles in the social lives of chimpanzees, the closest living species to humans, the way in which faces are attentionally processed remains unclear from a comparative-cognitive perspective. In the present study, three young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were tested with a simple manual response task in which various kinds of photographs, including faces as non-informative cues, were followed by a target.

Results

When the target appeared at the location that had been occupied by the face immediately before target onset, response times were significantly faster than when the target appeared at the opposite location that had been by the other object. Such an advantage was not observed when a photograph of a banana was paired with the other object. Furthermore, this attentional capture was also observed when upright human faces were presented, indicating that this effect is not limited to own-species faces. On the contrary, when the participants were tested with inverted chimpanzee faces, this effect was rather weakened, suggesting the specificity to upright faces.

Conclusion

Chimpanzee's visuospatial attention was easily captured by the face stimuli. This effect was face specific and stronger for upright faces than inverted. These results are consistent with those from typically developing humans.

Martinez、松沢哲郎: チンパンジーの条件付位置弁別の視聴覚間の比較

投稿日: 2009-07-17

Laura Martinez、松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Martinez, L., & Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Visual and auditory conditional position discrimination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behavioural Processes, 82, 90-94. (DOI:10.1016/j.beproc.2009.03.010)

チンパンジーの条件付位置弁別課題における視覚的手がかりと聴覚的手がかりの比較

チンパンジーの認知について、視覚の研究は多いが聴覚の研究は少ない。本研究の目的は、視覚処理と聴覚処理を比較することだ。新たな課題として、条件付位置弁別課題 (CPD) と呼ぶ弁別課題を考案した。視覚あるいは聴覚の手がかりをもとに左右の位置を識別する課題である。刺激は、同じチンパンジーの顔と声である。被験者はチンパンジー6個体だった。その結果、視覚と聴覚では大きな違いがあった。視覚性のCPDは聴覚性のそれよりも容易に習得した。従来の結果と同様に聴覚性の弁別課題はチンパンジーには学習が困難だった。個体差もあった。過去 の経験で象徴的見本合わせの経験の豊富な個体は両方の課題を習得できた。それに対し、聴覚ー視覚の異種感覚間見本あわせの経験の豊富な個体は、弁別学習という意味では同様に豊富な経験があるにもかかわらず、両条件ともまったく学習がすすまな かった。今後さらに、こうした視覚と聴覚の弁別学習を規定する要因を検討する必要がある。

Chimpanzee cognition has been studied predominantly through the visual modality, and much less through the auditory modality. The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in chimpanzees' processing of visual and auditory stimuli. We developed a new conditional position discrimination (CPD) task requiring the association between a stimulus (from either the auditory or the visual modality), and a spatial position (left or right). The stimuli consisted of the face and voice of two individuals well known to the subjects (one chimpanzee and one human). Six chimpanzees participated in both the visual and the auditory conditions. We found contrasting results between the two conditions: the subjects acquired the CPD more easily in the visual than in the auditory condition. This supports previous findings on the difficulties encountered by chimpanzees in learning tasks involving auditory stimuli. Our experiments also revealed individual differences: the chimpanzee with the most extensive experience in symbolic visual matching tasks showed good performance in both conditions. In contrast, the chimpanzee expert in an auditory-visual intermodal matching task showed no sign of learning in either condition. Future work should focus on finding the most appropriate procedure for exploring chimpanzees' auditory-visual cognitive skills.

Keywords: Auditory; Chimpanzee; Discrimination; Visual

松沢哲郎: 霊長類考古学

投稿日: 2009-07-17

松沢哲郎が総説を出版しました。

Haslam, M., Hernandez-Aguilar, A., Ling, V., Carvalho, S., de la Torre, I., DeStefano, A., Du, A., Hardy, B., Harris, J., Marchant, L., Matsuzawa, T., McGrew, W., Mercader, J., Mora, R., Petraglia, M., Roche, H., Visalberghi, E., & Warren, R. (2009). Primate archaeology. Nature, 460, 339-344. (DOI:10.1038/nature08188)

All modern humans use tools to overcome limitations of our anatomy and to make difficult tasks easier. However, if tool use is such an advantage, we may ask why it is not evolved to the same degree in other species. To answer this question, we need to bring a long-term perspective to the material record of other members of our own order, the Primates.

足立幾磨: アカゲザルにおけるサッチャー錯視

投稿日: 2009-06-26

足立幾磨が共著論文を出版しました。EurekAlert!の記事紹介

Adachi, I., Chou, D. P., & Hampton, R. R. (2009). Thatcher effect in monkeys demonstrates conservation of face perception across primates. Current Biology, online. (DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.067)

Accurate recognition of individuals is a foundation of social cognition. The remarkable ability of humans to distinguish among thousands of similar faces depends on sensitivity to unique configurations of facial features, including subtle differences in the relative placement of the eyes and mouth [1,2]. Determining whether similar perceptual processes underlie individual recognition in nonhuman primates is important for both the study of cognitive evolution and the appropriate use of primate models in social cognition research. In humans, some of the best evidence for a keen sensitivity to the configuration of features in faces comes from the Thatcher effect. This effect shows that it is difficult to detect changes in the orientation of the eyes and mouth in an image of an inverted face, even though identical changes are unmistakable in an upright face [3,4]. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a nonhuman primate species also exhibits the Thatcher effect. This direct evidence of configural face perception in monkeys, collected under testing conditions that closely parallel those used with humans, indicates that perceptual mechanisms for individual recognition have been conserved through primate cognitive evolution.

松沢哲郎: チンパンジーにおける数の象徴的表象

投稿日: 2009-05-20

松沢哲郎が総説を出版しました。

Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. (DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2009.04.007)

This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition.

松沢哲郎: チンパンジーにおける数の象徴的表象

投稿日: 2009-05-20

松沢哲郎が総説を出版しました。

Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. (DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2009.04.007)

This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition.

松沢哲郎: ヒト影響下の環境における野生チンパンジーの食物利用

投稿日: 2009-05-13

松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Hockings, K. J., Anderson, J. R., & Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Use of wild and cultivated foods by chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: Feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment. American Journal of Primatology, online. (DOI:10.1002/ajp.20698)

Key words: crop-raiding; chimpanzees; cultivated food availability; wild food availability; conflict mitigation

Increased human population growth and more conversions of natural habitat to agricultural land have resulted in greater proximity between humans and nonhuman primate species. Consequent increases in resource competition including crop-raiding are a by-product of both natural resources becoming less available and the nutritional benefits of cultivated foods becoming more known to the nonhuman primates. Chimpanzees at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa, consume 17 different types of cultivated foods that are grown extensively throughout their small, fragmented home range. Direct observations of feeding behavior conducted over an 18-month period revealed that during specific months crops account for up to one quarter of chimpanzee feeding time, with higher overall crop-raiding levels throughout the periods of wild fruit scarcity. Some cultivated foods, especially sugar fruits, are mostly fallback foods, whereas others, such as rice pith (Oryza sp.) and maize (Zea mays), are consumed according to their availability even when wild foods are abundant. These findings highlight the importance of both crop choice by farmers and a thorough understanding of the ecology of resident primate species when establishing land management techniques for alleviating human-primate conflict.

松沢哲郎: Q & A

投稿日: 2009-05-12

松沢哲郎がCurrent Biologyに執筆しました。

Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Q & A: Tetsuro Matsuzawa. Current Biology, 19, R310-R312. (DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.001)

林美里、松沢哲郎: 対象を操作する手のダイナミクス

投稿日: 2009-05-11

林美里と松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Crast, J., Fragaszy, D., Hayashi, M., & Matsuzawa, T. (2009). Dynamic in-hand movements in adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138, 274-285 (DOI:10.1002/ajpa.20925)

Keywords: manual dexterity; in-hand movements; object manipulation

Descriptions of manual function in nonhuman primates have largely focused on static precision and power grasping (as first defined by Napier,1956), while identification and description of dynamic manual function are rare and incomplete. Here, we describe several forms of in-hand movements used by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) when manipulating small objects. In-hand movements are defined as the movement of an object within one hand via manipulation of the digits. We presented adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (ages 5-29 years) with a task that required inserting small objects through correspondingly shaped cutouts in a transparent Plexiglas panel. While attempting to insert the objects through the cutouts, the subjects used at least two forms of in-hand movements to change their grip on the object for more precise alignment. We describe in detail the in-hand movements they used and the variability observed in form and execution among the subjects. In general, the adult subjects used in-hand movements more frequently and used a wider variety of forms than did the young juvenile subjects, suggesting that in-hand movements are in the process of fine-tuning around the age of 5 years in chimpanzees. The dexterity exhibited by the adults, however, shows that the neuromuscular and morphological requirements for relatively complex digital manipulation are present in the adult chimpanzee.

落合知美、松沢哲郎: チンパンジーの個性と幸福度の評定

投稿日: 2009-04-10

落合 (大平) 知美と松沢哲郎が共著論文を出版しました。

Weiss, A., Inoue-Murayama, M., Hong, K.-W., Inoue, E., Udono, T., Ochiai, T., Matsuzawa, T., Hirata, S., & King, J. E. (2009). Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 283-292. (DOI:10.1002/ajp.20649)

Keywords: chimpanzee; personality; well-being; culture; age; sex

日本に暮らすチンパンジー146個体について、その個性 (性格) と幸福度について評定をおこなった。当該のチンパンジーをよく知る複数の人間が、質問紙で答えるという方法である。質問紙は、「ホミノイド性格評価質問紙 (HPQ) 」と名づけられたもので、全部で43の形容詞について、当該個体がどれくらいあてはまるか否かを評定する。その評定尺度をもとに多変量解析して6つの主要領域を特定した。その結果を、アメリカならびにオーストラリアで得たチンパンジー100個体での評定結果と比較した。評定する人間の文化の違いや質問紙の言語の違いとは関係なく、きわめて安定した評定結果が得られた。つまり、チンパンジーの性格や幸福度を、HPQ質問紙によって適切に評価できることが示された。

We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

狩野文浩、友永雅己: チンパンジーのアイ・トラッキング研究

投稿日: 2009-04-10

狩野文浩と友永雅己が共著論文を出版しました。

Kano, F., & Tomonaga, M. (2009). How chimpanzees look at pictures: A comparative eye-tracking study. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, online. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.2008.1811)

アイ・トラッキングの手法を用いて、ヒトとチンパンジーの眼球運動の比較研究を行った。この試みは世界に先駆けて本研究が初めてである。実験では、ヒト、チンパンジー、その他様々な動物の全身画像を観察中の、ヒト、チンパンジー被験者の眼球運動を記録した。両種の眼球運動は極めてよく類似していたが、同時に興味深い差異も明らかとなった。類似点1. 両種とも、体の部位の中でとくに顔を長く注視した。2. 両種とも、写真を提示した直後(220 ms程度)に顔を注視することが多かった。相違点1. チンパンジーの注視点の移動 (サッカード運動) はヒトよりも頻繁で、より大きく動く (角度) ことが多かった。2. チンパンジーが写真の顔部位を注視する一回あたり持続時間は平均300 msでヒトの平均680 msに比べはるかに短かった。

Surprisingly little is known about the eye movements of chimpanzees, despite the potential contribution of such knowledge to comparative cognition studies. Here, we present the first examination of eye tracking in chimpanzees. We recorded the eye movements of chimpanzees as they viewed naturalistic pictures containing a full-body image of a chimpanzee, a human or another mammal; results were compared with those from humans. We found a striking similarity in viewing patterns between the two species. Both chimpanzees and humans looked at the animal figures for longer than at the background and at the face region for longer than at other parts of the body. The face region was detected at first sight by both species when they were shown pictures of chimpanzees and of humans. However, the eye movements of chimpanzees also exhibited distinct differences from those of humans; the former shifted the fixation location more quickly and more broadly than the latter. In addition, the average duration of fixation on the face region was shorter in chimpanzees than in humans. Overall, our results clearly demonstrate the eye-movement strategies common to the two primate species and also suggest several notable differences manifested during the observation of pictures of scenes and body forms.

Keywords: chimpanzee; eye movement; eye tracking; face; scene