Urinary steroids, FSH and CG measurements for monitoring the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the chimpanzee
Keiko Shimizu, Chisato Douke, Shiho Fujita, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Masaki Tomonaga, Masayuki Tanaka, Kiyoaki Matsubayashi, Motoharu Hayashi
Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status of chimpanzee based on the measurement of urinary steroids and gonadotropins were examined. A typical pre-ovulatory urinary estrone conjugate (E1C) surge and post-ovulatory increase in pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) were seen during the menstrual cycle. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) showed two peaks over the infertile menstrual cycle. The earliest changes indicating pregnancy were a coincident rise in E1C and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) levels and a concomitant fall in FSH levels. Urinary PdG levels showed a prolonged rise. Urinary E1C in the pregnant chimpanzee was higher than during the menstrual cycle and increased with advancing gestation, with maximum levels occurring near term. In the case of stillbirth, E1C and CG levels from mid- through late-pregnancy were low and the prepartum progressive increase in E1C was not shown. The data presented here are of great practical value in captive breeding management of chimpanzees.
E1C, PdG, gonadotropin, Pan troglodytes, ovulation, pregnancy monitoring, stillbirth