Advancement of non-invasive brain imaging techniques has allowed us to examine details of neural activities involved in affective processing in humans; however, no comparative data are available for chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans. In the present study, we measured event-related brain potentials in a fully awake adult chimpanzee as she looked at affective and neutral pictures. The results revealed a differential brain potential appearing 210 ms after presentation of an affective picture, a pattern similar to that in humans. This suggests that at least a part of the affective process is similar between humans and chimpanzees. The results have implications for the evolutionary foundations of emotional phenomena, such as emotional contagion and empathy.